- Codes: ASCII, binary (BIN), hexadecimal.
- Operating systems:
Desktops (Windows/Macs/Ubuntu LINUX), Servers and Parallel Machines (Redhat,
- Languages can be either interpreted or compiled to turn them into
machine code. Sometimes, especially for fortran, preprocessors are used to
speed up the code. Apart from fortran and c, languages of interest to this
course are html for webpages and postscript (PS) for printers and
editing. Formats of interest are gif, tiff, jpg, png. PDF is a
compressed postscript that is read by acrobat reader.
- Drivers are used to turn machine code into code for output devices like
printers. Sometimes an intermediate stage of a DVI (device independent)
file is needed. Previewers are used to preview material before printing,
such as xdvi for TeX and ghostscript (gs) and ghostview for postscript.