1. A single irradiated atom leads to a split interstitial defect.

  2. We discovered this defect in the computer sample with visualization techniques - we highlighted the expected bond angles and it just jumped out of the 5120 atom sample. Previous ab initio studies had shown this to be the most stable defect, no-one knew how it developed.

  3. Using colorcoding to highlight the three-fold coordinated atoms, we found substantial relaxation into these atoms near the place where one atom was displaced. The extent of this was a surprise.

  4. More bombarding atoms make a mess, but on subsequent annealing (heating and slow cooling) small regions of graphitic planes develop. These will percolate when of sufficient density.

  5. The big question with this type of calculation is whether the classical potentials are adequate to model transformations between sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon: we made special tests of this and reproduced ab initio calculations of the process of graphitization of Diamond.