Matter is made up of Plasma, Gas, Liquid and Solid phases.

The Solid phases can be ordered or amorphous. See the glassball simulation page for more details.

We will first discuss connections between 2 atoms (molecules) and then move to many atom solids. Today there is strong interest in nanoscale systems, which a sort of in-betweeen.

J is the total atomic Angular Momentum for the electron, and it is the sum of L, the orbital Angular Momentum and S, the spin Angular Momentum.

The ordered solids have many different lattice structures. There are 14 simple lattices called Bravais lattices. Sometimes the structures are more complex with several different sub-lattices. Technically these are called non-Bravais lattices. A common structure for semiconductors is the diamond structure. There are also structures with short-range order but no long range order, as first shown by Prof. Schectman.

Some elements can have different solid structures, e.g. Carbon which can take both diamond and graphite structures. See more details here and here.
Carbon also forms nanoscale objects such as bucky balls and nanotubes here.

See p. 315 and 316 of Tipler, or p. 1410 of Serway and Beichner or p. 1412 of Serway and Jewett. Examples 9-1 and 9-2 on p. 314 of Tipler are suitable to study here.

If you are unsure what a mole is check out HERE.


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